Fair Use Notice

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making this material available in an effort to advance understanding of political, social, economic, scientific, environmental, human rights, and social justice issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the 1976 Copyright Act.

§ 107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use38 Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include —

(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;

(2) the nature of the copyrighted work;

(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and

(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.

In accordance with section 107 of Title 17 U.S.C., the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and/or educational purposes. You can download the Copyright Law of the United States in PDF format here. Additional information can be found on the United States Copyright Office web site.

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